GRAMATICA, Antiveduto
(b. ca. 1571, Roma, d. 1626, Roma)


Italian painter active mainly in Rome. According to Giovanni Baglione, the artist was given the name Antiveduto ("foreseen") because his father had a premonition that he would be soon born during a journey between his native Siena and Rome. It was in Rome that Antiveduto was baptised, raised and based his career. His apprenticeship with the Perugian artist Giovanni Domenico Angelini introduced him to small-scale works, mostly on copper. He gained the nickname "gran Capocciante" because he specialised in painting heads of famous men. A decade later, in 1591, Antiveduto set up as an independent artist. Giovan Pietro Bellori noted that Caravaggio worked for some months in his studio. Both artists were to enjoy the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte and the Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani.

Gramatica's earliest surviving public commission, an old-fashioned configuration depicting Christ the Saviour with Sts Stanislaus of Krakow, Adalbert of Prague and Hyacinth Odrowaz, was painted for the high altar San Stanislau dei Polacchi. Very few works are definitely attributable to him. Archetypal heads, rhetorical hand gestures and contrasting lights and darks characterise his paintings. Datable c. 1619, early biographers ascribe to him The Dream of St Romuald painted for the high altar of the Eremo dei Camaldolesi in Frascati. Antiveduto painted many works for private clients in Rome and beyond, particularly in Spain.

Characterized by Giulio Mancini as most zealous in his profession, Antiveduto began his association with the Accademia di San Luca in 1593, attaining the highest office of "principe" in 1624. Shortly after this, however, he became embroiled in scandal. The machinations of his enemy Tommaso Salini over his attempt to sell of the Accademia's altarpiece by Raphael brought about his demotion.