OSTADE, Adriaen Jansz. van
(b. 1610, Haarlem, d. 1685, Haarlem)
Dutch painter and printmaker of the Baroque period known for his genre pictures of Dutch peasant life. He also did religious subjects, portraits, and landscapes. Van Ostade was a prolific artist, executing his small-scale works in oil, usually on wood panels. He also worked in watercolour, did spirited pen drawings, and produced about 50 etchings. His works won him much popularity during his lifetime, and in 1662 he was made president of the Haarlem painters' guild.
Ostade and the Flemish genre painter Adriaen Brouwer may have been pupils of Frans Hals about 1627, although Hals's style was not a major influence on either of them. There is a much closer resemblance between the paintings of the two young artists than between their pictures and those of any older master. Brouwer was the most important influence in shaping Ostade's style. Like Brouwer, Ostade delighted in scenes of low peasant life, such as tavern brawls, usually in dimly lit interiors with a single source of light illuminating a principal group, as in Carousing Peasants in an Interior (c. 1635; Alte Pinakothek, Munich). He treated these themes with a broad and vigorous technique in a subdued range of colours that often borders on monochrome and used a considerable element of caricature to underline the coarseness of his peasant types. Ostade's colour schemes in his early period (1630s) are largely confined to a range of neutral bluish-grays and browns, sometimes enlivened by a single note of bright colour. From the 1640s on, he gradually adopted a brighter palette, and his subjects, still mostly from peasant life, tend to become less ribald and grotesque. In the works of his maturity (1650-70) are found more outdoor settings, such as peasants by a cottage door or figures making merry outside an inn, e.g., The Itinerant Fiddler (1672; Mauritshuis, The Hague).
Ostade was successful, popular, and much imitated. He was probably the teacher of the genre painter Jan Steen.