Lionne, Hugues de (1611-1671)
French secretary of state for foreign affairs from 1663 to 1671 who laid the diplomatic groundwork that enabled King Louis XIV to initiate wars of conquest against the Spanish (War of Devolution, 1667-68) and the Dutch (1672-78).
Born into the lower nobility, Lionne was the nephew of the French diplomat Abel Servien. He received training in international politics at an early age, and he was made an adviser for foreign affairs when Cardinal Jules Mazarin became chief minister on the accession of the four-year-old Louis XIV in 1643. While Mazarin was in temporary exile during the aristocratic uprising known as the Fronde (1648-53), Lionne remained in Paris as his agent. In 1659 Lionne negotiated the Treaty of the Pyrenees, which ended a 24-year war with Spain by arranging a marriage between Louis XIV and Marie-Thérèse, daughter of the Spanish king Philip IV. Lionne was responsible for the treaty's moyennant ("on condition") clause by which Marie-Thérèse renounced her claims to the Spanish throne in return for a large dowry.
When Louis personally took control of the government upon the death of Mazarin in 1661, Lionne was made a minister in the king's exclusive inner council (Conseil d'en Haut). Two years later he purchased the office of secretary of state for foreign affairs. The death of Philip IV and the accession of the sickly young Charles II to the Spanish throne in 1665 gave Lionne and Louis an opportunity to advance French interests at the expense of Spain. Because the Spanish dowry had not been paid, Lionne declared Marie-Thérèse's renunciation void and claimed that most of the Spanish Netherlands had devolved upon her. French troops invaded the Spanish Netherlands in May 1667, and in the ensuing months Lionne obtained support for France from the electors of Brandenburg and Bavaria. In January 1668 he concluded with the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I a secret pact for the partitioning of the Spanish inheritance between France and Austria on the death of Charles II. Nevertheless, the English and Dutch soon pressured Louis into accepting a peace that gave France control of only a few towns in the Netherlands. Lionne immediately set about isolating the Dutch in preparation for a French invasion of the United Provinces. He formed an alliance with England in 1670, but he died before the conclusion of treaties with Sweden and Austria enabled Louis to launch the Dutch invasion in 1672. The collapse of Lionne's network of alliances prevented Louis from subduing the Dutch.
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