Original name Pietro da Morrone, or Pietro del Murrone (b. 1215, Isernia?, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies - d. May 19, 1296, near Ferentino, Papal States; canonized May 5, 1313; feast day May 19), pope from July 5 to Dec. 13, 1294, the first pontiff to abdicate. He founded the Celestine order.
Pietro was a Benedictine in his youth but soon became a hermit and lived in the Abruzzi Mountains, near Sulmona. His rigorous asceticism attracted followers, and he became the head of a group of hermits (c. 1260) that were later called Celestines and incorporated into the Benedictine order.
Celestine was in his eighties when he was elected pope on July 5, 1294. He accepted only because of the perilous situation of the church: the papacy had been vacant for two years. Though a holy man, he lacked administrative ability and considered the papacy a distraction from his ascetic struggle for salvation. He distrusted the cardinals and became dependent on King Charles II of Naples, with whose supporters he filled the Curia. Further, he favoured his own hermits and the Franciscan Spirituals, whom he permitted to secede from the main part of their order, a solution that was much later made permanent after long struggle.
After encountering great difficulty, Celestine realized it would be dangerous for the church and for his soul as well if he continued as pope. Hence he consulted the cardinals and resigned, on December 13.
After Cardinal Benedict Caetani became his successor as Boniface VIII, some claimed the resignation unlawful. Thus the majority of the cardinals found it advisable to keep Celestine under supervision, and he was not allowed to return to his hermitage. On the verge of escaping via the Adriatic Sea, he was captured and sent back to Boniface, who kept him interned in Fumone Castle, where he died. Although Celestine had the courage to terminate an impossible situation, Dante places him at the entrance of Hell for his abdication and alludes to the pope (Inferno, iii, 59ff.) as ". . . him who made, through cowardice, the great refusal."
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