HOLBEIN, Hans the Younger
(b. 1497, Augsburg, d. 1543, London)
Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk1539-40
Tempera on wood, 80 x 62 cm
Royal Collection, Windsor
Thomas Howard (1473-1554) was a powerful English noble who held a variety of high offices under King Henry VIII. Although he was valuable to the King as a military commander, he failed in his aspiration to become the chief minister of the realm.
Howard was the brother-in-law of King Henry VII and the son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. In May 1513 he became lord high admiral, and on September 9 he helped rout the Scots at Flodden Field near Branxton, Northumberland. He became lord deputy of Ireland in 1520 but soon left this post to command a fleet against the French.
Succeeding his father as Duke of Norfolk in 1524, he headed the faction opposed to Henry's chief minister, Thomas Wolsey. Upon Wolsey's fall in 1529, Norfolk became president of the royal council. He supported the marriage of his niece Anne Boleyn to Henry in 1533, but, by the time of Anne's fall in 1536, his relationship to Henry had already been weakened by the rise of Thomas Cromwell. As lord high steward, Norfolk was assigned to preside at her trial and execution. He momentarily regained royal favour by skillfully suppressing the rebellion of Roman Catholics in northern England known as the Pilgrimage of Grace (1536). A conservative in religion, Norfolk became a leading opponent of two influential church reformers: the king's chief adviser, Thomas Cromwell, and the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. Upon Cromwell's execution (1540) Norfolk emerged as the second most powerful man in England, but his position was again weakened when Henry's fifth wife, Catherine Howard - another of Norfolk's nieces - was put to death in 1542.
In December 1546 Norfolk was accused of being an accessory to the alleged treasonable activities of his son, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. Surrey was executed and Norfolk condemned, but before the sentence could be carried out Henry VIII died (January 1547). Norfolk remained in prison during the reign of the Protestant king Edward VI (reigned 1547-53); in August 1553, following the accession of Queen Mary (reigned 1553-58), a Roman Catholic, he was released and restored to his dukedom. He died in 1554 after failing to suppress the uprising, led by Sir Thomas Wyat, protesting the marriage of Mary I to King Philip of Spain.