LEONARDO da Vinci
(b. 1452, Vinci, d. 1519, Cloux, near Amboise)
The Madonna of the Carnation (detail)1478-80
Oil on panel
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
The Madonna with the Carnation was produced using a paint medium containing oils and is not in a good state of preservation. The flesh tones, such as on Mary's head, clearly show that a layer of paint shrank due to a disparity between the colour pigments and the paint medium containing oil.