(b. 1452, Vinci, d. 1519, Cloux, near Amboise)

Studies of water

Pen and ink on paper, 290 x 202 mm
Royal Library, Windsor

The study shows surface currents, whirlpools and eddies such as those created when a jet of water pours into a quiet pool. At the top of the page Leonardo examined the eddies created in flowing water if a board was held in the water by either its narrow or wide side. These studies were part of his basic research and enabled him to develop his projects for the construction of canals. He did, however, recognize that similar eddies and vortices are created in the air when cold and warm winds or layers of air meet each other.