VERMEER, Johannes
(b. 1632, Delft, d. 1675, Delft)

Woman in Blue Reading a Letter (detail)

Oil on canvas
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

The woman is placed precisely in the center of the composition. A table and chairs erect a framework around her statuesque profile. The strong horizontal of the bar at the bottom of the map focuses attention on her hands holding the letter. This compositional grid restricts any hint of motion and denies physical release of the woman's emotional excitement. It seems as if the wandering patterns of the map above her head are her only outlet and express her inner turmoil.

The geometric arrangement does not end with the positive elements of map, table and chairs. Vermeer incorporated the negative shapes of the wall into the structure as well. The asymmetrical balance of these shapes provides additional stabilization of the composition. The importance of these spaces to Vermeer is revealed through an x-radiograph, which shows that he extended the original map outline toward the left. This balanced the width of the wall areas to the left and right of the figure.

Vermeer also used colour to stabilize the design. The blue of the jacket, chair and table coverings and the light brown of the dress and map exert a calming effect. The tonalities firmly affix the figure within the compositional framework.

There are two light sources. This serves to diffuse the shadows, avoiding the harshness that a dominating light source would have imposed on the work. Yet again, Vermeer shows his willingness to revise reality to enhance his composition. The flow of light is subtly altered. While the chair and map cast shadows, the woman does not. Encompassing the woman in a diffuse light separates her from her temporal framework, which enhances the sense of permanence that she radiates. To intensify this effect, Vermeer went so far as to contour the figure with a line of light blue.