(active 1651 in Modena)

Exterior view

begun 1650
Palazzo Ducale, Modena

Between 1630 and 1680 churches, palaces, and villas of merit rose in great number all over Italy, but many of these buildings are 'provincial' relying on Roman precedent or assistance. The Palazzo Ducale in Modena, one of the largest palaces in Italy, may serve as an example. Attributed to Bartolomeo Avanzini (1608-58), a mediocre architect, it is certain that at the beginning, between 1631 and 1634, Girolamo Rainaldi had a leading hand in the planning. In 1651 Avanzini's design, based on that of Rainaldi, was submitted to the criticism of Bernini, Cortona, and Borromini. Later Guarini directed the execution. Ideas of all these masters, and particularly of Bernini, were certainly incorporated.

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