MANUEL, Niklaus
(b. ca. 1484, Bern, d. 1530, Bern)


Swiss painter and poet and statesman; formerly sometimes wrongly called N. M. Deutsch on the basis of his monogram N.M.D.: the "D" is now thought to stand for the surname "Degen". As a member of the Inner Council of Berne, Manuel had an important influence on the debates on religious reform, having already made a name with plays attacking ecclesiastical abuses. As a painter Manuel was obviously affected by the work of Dürer and Baldung Grien; but his richly coloured pictures of biblical and mythological subjects frequently have dramatic effects of lighting and mood of landscape peculiar to him. His paintings include: The Execution of John the Baptist and the Judgement of Paris.