NANNI DI BANCO
(b. ca. 1375, Firenze, d. 1421, Firenze)
Florentine sculptor whose works exemplify the stylistic transition from the Gothic to the Renaissance that occurred in Italy in the early 15th century.
Nanni was trained by his father, Antonio di Banco, a sculptor who worked with Niccolò d'Arezzo on the Cathedral of Florence. It is not surprising, therefore, that Nanni's first important work, a life-size marble statue of the prophet Isaiah (Esaias), was commissioned for the cathedral. Installed on the cathedral's western façade, this figure is more Gothic in feeling than his later, more classical works for the guilds of the Or San Michele in Florence. Of the latter, the Quattro Coronati (Four Crowned Saints; c. 1411-13) is considered his masterpiece. Influenced by antique art, the four saints are dressed in firmly modeled Roman togas and have heads that strongly resemble the ancient portrait busts of Roman senators that Nanni had studied. The group of figures is bound together by the spatial relation of each to the other and by a kind of mute conversation in which they all seem to be engaged.
A relief of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary that was placed above the Mandorla Gate (Porta della Mandorla) was begun about 1414. This was his last major work and was probably finished posthumously by Luca Della Robbia, who is generally thought to have been Nanni's student.