(b. 1711, Mühlheim, d. 1793, Herrnhut)
German joiner and designer. He founded what became one of Europe's most widely renowned furniture workshops; he was the father of David Roentgen, the celebrated cabinetmaker to Queen Marie-Antoinette of France.
After various jobs in Holland, the elder Roentgen settled (1731) in London and apparently was apprenticed in marquetry, engraving, and joinery. He became a member of the Moravian Church, a Protestant sect founded in Bohemia that emigrated to the British Isles in 1734. Returning to Germany in 1738, he departed in 1740 for North America as a Moravian missionary. Shipwrecked off the Irish coast, he temporarily worked in County Galway before returning to Germany, settling (1750) at Neuwied (just northwest of Cologne), where he opened a workshop that produced furniture of outstanding quality, often decorated with inlay work of ivory and other semiprecious materials. Much of this furniture was created for various German courts.
Roentgen's son David succeeded him in 1772 as head of the firm; the two then worked in partnership until the senior Roentgen retired in 1784. The family workshop was famous for its fine Rococo-styled furniture and for music boxes, clocks, and mechanical toys.