TOLEDO, Juan Bautista de
(b. ca. 1515, Madrid, d. 1567, Madrid)


Spanish architect, sculptor, and engineer. In 1547 he went to Rome and studied under the influence of Michelangelo. Afterwards the Viceroy, Don Pietro de Toledo, invited him to Naples and engaged him as architect to the emperor, Charles V. In Naples, he designed and superintended many important works, among others the church of San Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, the square bastions to the Castello Nuovo. and a number of fountains.

In 1559 he was summoned by Philip II to Madrid who appointed him architect-in-chief of the royal works in Spain. He restored the Alcazar de Madrid, Alcazar de Toledo and Convento de los Jerónimos de Madrid. He designed the frontage of the church de las Descalzas Reales He also performed architectural and public works in Casa de Campo de Madrid, Casa Real de Aceca and Palacio de Aranjuez.

In 1561, he was appointed "Arquitecto Real" responsible for the town planning of El Escorial: Monastery, El Escorial village and La Granjilla. He supervised architectural and public works in El Escorial (village), the surroundings of El Escorial (monastery) and La Granjilla de La Fresneda until his death in 1567. The Monastery was finished by Juan de Herrera in 1584.

Juan Bautista de Toledo was generally considered an architect of much merit, well-versed in philosophy, mathematics, and the belles-lettres, and endowed with all those qualities which Vitruvius considers necessary to form a good architect.