VITTONE, Bernardo Antonio
(b. 1702, Torino, d. 1770, Torino)
Italian architect and writer. He studied painting in Rome. Returning to Turin in 1733, he observed the late works of Filippo Juvarra under construction and, in 1737, edited the papers of Guarino Guarini, the Architettura civile.
Vittone obtained spectacular visual and structural effects in a number of small, central-plan churches that he designed in Turin and elsewhere in the Piedmont from 1737 to 1770. These churches had multiple-level interiors and used innovative vaulting techniques for their complex domes. A central dome might have two or even three successive vaults, the lower ones being pierced to allow the viewer to see through them to the ones above. This placing of structures within structures might also be illusionistically achieved or enhanced by skillful painting or by the manipulation of lighting through cleverly placed windows. A prime example is the Church of Santa Chiara at Bra (1742); it has a low vault pierced by windows through which one sees a second shell, painted with heavenly scenes and lit by windows not visible from the interior.
Vittone would frequently place smaller, subsidiary domes around a larger, lower, central dome and would open up the space for viewing by using relatively slim piers whose curving forms contribute to an impression of light, airy soaring movement in the elegantly decorated interior. Among his other masterpieces are the Chapel of the Visitation at Vallinotto (1738), and the churches of San Bernardino in Chieri (1740) and Santa Chiara in Turin (1742). His later churches, such as the Assunta at Grignasco (1750) and that of San Michele at Rivarolo Canavese, are larger, simpler, and more monumental but feature the same kinds of diminishing successions of curving, converging vaults and piers.
Considered to be the last of the three great masters of Piedmontese Baroque architecture, Vittone achieved a reconciliation of the ideas of his predecessors Guarino Guarini and Filippo Juvarra in developing an immensely creative type of architecture, especially for churches. He published two treatises, "Istruzioni elementari" (1760) and "Istruzioni diverse" (1766).