FISCHER, Johann Michael
(b. 1692, Burglengenfeld, d. 1766, München)
German architect, one of the most creative and prolific designers of late Baroque and Rococo churches in southern Germany.
Fischer was trained by his father, a mason. As an apprentice in Bohemia and Moravia beginning in 1713, he became familiar with the churches of the Dientzenhofer family and returned to Munich in 1718 to become foreman of city architecture. One of his earliest independent projects was the renovation of the Premonstratensian abbey church of Osterhofen (1726-29).
The major elements of Fischer's churches are a centralized ground plan, with rounded-off interior angles, interconnecting spaces, and rhythmically undulating patches of lush decoration, the whole being brilliantly lit by large windows. His productivity was astounding; in 1735 alone he planned three outstanding churches - St. Michael's in Berg-am-Laim, the pilgrimage church at Aufhausen, and the Augustinian church at Ingolstadt.
Fischer's greatest work is generally considered to be the Benedictine abbey church at Ottobeuren (1748-55), a vast Rococo structure centred on three successive cupolas and lavishly - but elegantly - decorated with sculpture, stuccowork, and paint. The Benedictine abbey church of St. Marius and St. Arianus at Rott-am-Inn (1759-62) may be stylistically more significant, as its relative simplicity heralds the approach of Neoclassicism.